Grouting techniques use to prevent water leakage in massive and other water retaining systems. Underground structures like tunnels, hydroelectric power plants, storage caverns etc are always expensive to build. And have a major value to the society. As infrastructures, they are directly responsible for wealth creation and development, to the need for better and constant maintenance.
Grouting works are a significant part of these important projects, mainly in:
- Consolidation & strengthening weak soil during tunneling excavation
- curtain grouting for concrete and earth dams
- ground settlement control
- waterproofing of existing structures
- preventing the spreading of hazardous contaminants
- foundation plate formation
- re-opening of old dams and tunnels
Today the range of products and techniques available for injection is quite wide.
Grouting technique helps people to design. And application phases to choose easy and the best system to solve the specific problems.
There are two main grouting methods. They are,
- Grouts based on types of cement
- Grouts based on chemical product
These procedures for grouting makes with great care. The entire grouting process to carry out in a controlled environment. This makes a strong bond between the materials with concrete.
1. Grouts based on types of cement
PCM – pure cement mixes, consisting of cement and water.
ACM – Admixed cement mixes, composed of cement, water, plasticisers or superplasticizers.
ADCM – Additive cement mixes, composed of an admixed cement mix plus clays.
2. Grouts based on chemical products
SG – Silicate Gels, A solution of sodium silicate in aqueous solution with a reagent.
PH – Phenolic resins, an aqueous solution cured with strong acidic or alkaline hardeners, according to resin type.
OM – Organomineral resins, modified silicate reacts with isocyanate to form a tough material with very high adhesive strength.
PU – Polyurethane, polyol, and isocyanate react forming a high strength adhesive material.
EP – Epoxies, resins, react to form a tough non-foaming material.
Advantages of grouting techniques
- Low priced materials
- Easy to apply
- High penetration capacity
- Fast setting times
- High capacity for energy absorption (PU)