Soil nailing is a construction technique to reinforce soil to make it stable and strong. Soil nailing technique uses for slopes and excavations alongside highways, railway lines. It uses for, excavations, retaining walls slopes, to make it more strong and stable.
The soil reinforces with slender elements like reinforcing bars name as nails. These reinforcing bars install into pre-drill holes and grouts. The nails install at an inclination of ten to twenty degrees with vertical reinforcement.
Soil Nailing employes when requiring slopes for excavation cannot provide due to space constraints. And employes in the construction of retaining wall. It is an alternative to retaining wall structures.
At excavation, the shotcrete, concrete and grouting materials apply to the excavation face to grout the reinforcing steel and nails. It provides stability to the steep soil slope.
Types of Soil Nailing:
There are various types of soil nailing techniques:
- Grouted Soil Nailing
- Driven Nails
- Self-drilling Soil Nail
- Jet Grouted Soil Nail
- Launched Soil Nail
1. Grouted Soil Nailing
In this type, the holes drills in walls or slope face and nails inserts in the pre-drill holes. These holes fill with grouting materials like concrete and shotcrete.
2. Driven Nails:
Driven nailing use for temporary stabilization of soil slopes. In this method, the nails drive in the slope face at the time of excavation. This method is very fast. It does not provide corrosion protection to the reinforcement steel and nails.
3. Self-drilling Soil Nail:
In this method, the hollow bars use. Hollow bars drills into the slope surface and grout inject simultaneously during the drilling process. This method of soil nailing is faster than grout nailing. This method provides more corrosion resistance to nails than driven nails.
4. Jet Grouted Soil Nail:
In this method, jets use for eroding the soil for creating holes in the slope surface. Steel bars install in this hole and grouts with concrete. It provides good corrosion protection for the steel bars and nails.
5. Launched Soil Nail:
In this method, the steel bars force into the soil with high speed using compressed air mechanism. The installation of soil nails is fast. And control over the length of bar penetrating the ground is difficult.